What are chemical reactions
Chemical reactions are defined as the process of breaking down bonds of reactants to produce new substances. This process changes the properties of reactants to produce new substances that differ in their physical and chemical properties and in the order of their atoms. Several types, types of these reactions vary depending on the nature of the reactants and the processes that occur during the reaction, and in this article, we will mention the types of chemical reactions.
Types of chemical reactions
Chemistry plays an important role in our human lives. It is involved in many industries, agriculture, and medicine. We have mentioned that chemistry is involved in many industries such as
- Plastic industry.
- Glass industry.
- Cement industry.
- Building materials industry.
- Petrochemical production.
- Oil production.
Chemical reactions are also used to produce new substances when a chemical is added to another chemical.
Note: Not all chemicals can interact with each other.
Chemistry is a vast world and as manna advances, new materials and chemical elements are explored.
Scientists and chemists have shown the kinds of chemical reactions we provide to you with explanations and examples.
Union or annexation reactions
To understand what are the reactions of union or annexation, try to understand what the following equations have in common
CO2 (g) + MgO (s) ――― → MgCO3(s)
C (S) + O2 (g) ――― → CO2(g)
BAO (s) + H2O (l) ――― → BA (OH) 2 (aq)
2Na (s) + Cl2 (g) ――― → 2NaCl (s)
2Mg (s) + O2 (g) ――― → 2MgO (s)
N2O5 (g) + H2O (l) ――― → 2HNO3 (aq)
You must have inferred from the above equations that two chemicals were reacted to produce one new substance as in the following formula:
A + B ――― → AB
A simple example is an interaction between iron and air to form iron rust
The reaction of iodine with aluminum is produced
2Al + 3I2 – → 2AlI3
The interactions of the Union are divided into the following sections
(A) The combination of an element with an element
Where one element is combined with another to form a new compound. Examples include the interaction of magnesium with oxygen according to the following chemical equation:
Mg + O2 ――Δ― → MgO
Where the equation eventually becomes as follows
2Mg + O2 ――Δ → 2MgO
(B) Composite union with the element
Where a compound is combined with an element to make the two a new compound, for example, an equation for the reaction of nitric oxide with air oxygen.
NO, + O ――Δ― → NO2
2NO + O2 ――Δ― → 2 NO2
(C) one union with another
It results from the combination of two compounds, another new compound, for example
the formation of acids by combining water with nonmetal elements, and from it
SO3 + H2O ――― → H2SO4
The combination of water and metallic elements to form alkalis, for example, CaO + H2O ――― → CaO (OH) 2
Where two or more substances are produced when the reaction is taken by taking one pure substance as in the following formula
A ――― → B + C
An example of this is the dissolution of water when an electrical current is passed in a given medium, which can be represented in the following equation
2H2O ――― → 2H2 + O2
The meaning of exchange interactions can be clarified by reflecting on the following
Why are the three reactions given not the type of dissociation reactions?
Why can’t we consider the three interactions given above to be of direct union type?
After contemplating this, it is imperative that the dear student be sure to have a third type of interaction
Chemical differs from disintegration and union, where an element is reacted with a compound to produce another element and compound
Here’s a dear student for an illustration
Mg (aq) + HCl (aq) ―― → MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) + Energy
We will give you, dear reader, the following example to illustrate this type of interaction
The magnesium burns with a strong and bright flame in the oxygen, to form a white smoke of magnesium oxide according to the following equation:
2Mg + O2 ――― → 2MgO
The magnesium atom lost two electrons to become an Mg ++ moiety
The oxygen atom in the O2 molecule acquired these two electrons, and so turned into an O-2 moiety
It will also be explained in the following two half equations
2Mg ――― → Mg + 2 + 2é
O2 + 4é ――― → 2O-2
Also called simple substitution reactions: also called simple exchange reactions, in which one element is disturbed by the location of another element in a reactive compound to produce a new compound. Examples include the breakdown of table sugar in the presence of heat to steam and carbon.
In which a compound disintegration occurs into two compounds or elements.
Double Substitution Reactions
Two or more elements replace the other two elements in the reactive compound.
Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
Also called oxidation and reflux reactions, eg 2Mg + O2 ――― → 2MgO
Absorbent and exothermic chemical reactions
Exothermic and endothermic reactions are those reactions in which energy is part of the reaction’s output or the requirements for its occurrence. In the case of exothermic reactions, energy is produced as a reaction to the reaction. The heat has to be supplied with energy to react, and when it occurs, a significant decrease in the temperature of the reaction system is sought.
Theories of the chemical reactions
Named after the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius, this theory states that acid is a substance with a higher concentration of hydronium ions in the aqueous solution. It also states that the base is a substance with a higher concentration of ions. hydroxide ion OH, accordingly, the reaction of acids and bases involves the production of a water molecule as a result of the fusion of the hydroxide ion with the hydrogen ion, such as the reaction of hydrochloric acid to the sodium hydroxide compound.
Bronsted Lowry Theory:
Bronsted Lowry’s theory is named after its authors, the Danish scientist Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and the English scientist Thomas Lowry, who defined acid as a proton-donated compound, and the base as a proton-receptor compound. As an indication that the reaction can be reversed dynamically, according to the theory, acids are broken down into strong or weak compounds depending on whether the equilibrium state favors reactants or products.
Theory of Louis:
The American scientist Lewis proposed this theory based on the idea that bases are donated compounds with a pair of electrons, while acids are receptors for a pair of electrons. According to this theory, ammonia, water, and many other Lewis basal compounds interact with metal ions to form those compounds known as harmonic compounds. Coordination compounds.
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