Types of the mixture with examples
Definition of the mixture
The mixture is one of the chemical classifications and is also known as a mixture. The substance in chemistry is divided into three sections: element, compound, and mixture. The mixture is produced by mixing or mixing two or more elements together or two or more components together, without any chemical reaction between components. The mixture; each element or compound remains the component of the mixture, maintaining its physical and chemical properties in most cases.
Properties of the mixture
Characteristics of the mixture include:
- The components of the mixture are separated using physical methods such as slurry, filtration, distillation, crystallization, and sublimation.
- It consists of components with different weight ratios.
- The process of forming a mixture is a physical mixing process and not a chemical reaction; the bonds between the components do not break and no new bonds are formed.
- All components of the mixture retain their properties. The mixture is an essential part of human daily life.
A substance is defined as everything that occupies space, possesses mass, and all physical bodies are composed of matter, which is in the form of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Plasma, or Bose-Einstein, moves between these states depending on the amount of heat absorbed or released. The substance is divided into three strands according to how the atoms are assembled. They determine their chemical and physical properties. These branches are elements, compounds, and mixtures.
A chemical mixture is defined as the product of the collection of two or more substances, each of which retains its own chemical constituents. There is no breakage or formation of any chemical bonds. The components of this mixture can be easily separated. The proportions of each substance in the mixture are variable, and mixtures have two main types. , Two homogeneous mixtures, and heterogeneous mixtures.
Homogeneous mixtures are characterized by the uniformity of their components, so that they can not be easily separated, and all parts have the same characteristics, and in these mixtures can be identified dissolved material whose particle size is tiny, and the solvent and homogeneous mixtures may contain any number of components, Examples of homogeneous mixtures include:
- The air.
- Water and sugar.
- Washing powders.
Heterogeneous mixtures are defined as mixtures that do not have a uniform composition. Materials are not evenly distributed and can be separated by mechanical means such as screening, filtering, and gravity.
Types of heterogeneous mixtures
Heterogeneous mixtures are divided into two basic types:
Suspended mixtures: Suspended mixtures are defined as the mixture of liquid and solids, which do not dissolve in the liquid solution so that these materials can settle and precipitate below the liquid when left undisturbed for some time.
Colloidal mixtures: The colloidal mixture, or emulsions, is a special type of suspended mixture, a liquid mixture that cannot be combined with stirring or shaking so that these fluids settle in two separate layers over each other when left for a while. Of time without any hindrance.
Examples of heterogeneous mixtures
Examples of heterogeneous mixtures include:
- Sand in water.
- Vinegar in oil.
- A mixture of different types of grains.
- Sugar, corn starch.
- Oil painting. The blood.
- The mixture of stones in the soil.
Methods of separation of mixtures
Separation of different materials such as mixtures plays an important role in many fields such as the study of biochemical systems, environmental analysis, pharmaceutical research, isolation of important materials from such materials as gold extraction, and other fields.
Chromatography: Chromatography is a method of separation of mixtures, which relies on passing the mixture in a suspension, solution, or vapor through a medium in which the components are separated depending on their movement at different rates. Thin-layer chromatography A special type of this method, which is used to separate colored mixtures, or which can be colored in particular dyes.
Filtration is one of the methods of separation of mixtures, in which the pure substances in mixtures of particles of some of them are large enough to be collected through the porous tools used for that filtration. Examples of this method are some water filters. Used in filtering bacteria, coffee filters.
Evaporation: Homogeneous mixtures containing one or more types of salts can be separated by the use of evaporation technique, which relies on heating and evaporation of the liquid. This method is suitable for the separation of soluble solids in the liquid. Salt in many regions of the world by evaporation of seawater by the sun.
Distillation: Distillation is used as an effective tool for separating mixtures of two or more pure liquids. Through this method, the components of the liquid mixture are evaporated, condensed, and isolated from each other. In simple distillation, the components of the mixture are heated to evaporate the more volatile component at the lowest temperature. It condenses into a liquid state, and there are many more complex distillation methods, which are especially used to separate mixtures made of different pure liquids with close boiling points from each other.
The difference between chemical compounds and mixtures
There are many differences between chemical compounds and mixtures, the most important of which are:
- Mixtures consist of two or more types of chemically unassembled materials, which can be mixed in any proportion, while chemical compounds consist of two or more chemically assembled elements at constant proportions.
- Mixtures have variable components, while chemical compounds are specific.
- Mixtures do not have fixed properties. The characteristics of each mixture depend on the nature of its components, while the properties of the compounds are constant.
- Mixtures are non-pure, and compounds are pure.
- Mixtures can be easily separated using physical methods such as filtration and distillation, while compounds cannot be easily separated, and only by chemical methods.
- Components of mixtures can be visually determined, as they do not lose their identity, whereas in compounds whose elements lose their chemical identity.
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