Sodium element with uses
Definition of sodium
Sodium is known to be a waxy element, descended from the group of alkali metals, which are produced in nature abundantly in the form of compounds, and it is worth noting that it is a chemically active element, and is characterized by silver-white, and is found in salt, and symbolizes sodium B (Na) It is noteworthy that it is the most common alkali metal, and the sixth most abundant element, and makes up about 2.8% of the earth’s crust, in addition to reproducing in the form of (NaCl), which is a metal halite % Of dissolved components in seawater.
It of the periodic table, atomic number =11Mass number23Electronic distribution of sodium1S 2 , 2S 2 2P 6 , 3S 1
it is a light silver-white metal, highly effective and belongs to the family of base metals forming the first group in the periodic table of elements.
Formula of sodium
Atomic mass: 22.989769 u
Atomic number: 11
Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s1
Melting point: 97.79 °C
Discovery of Na
It is isolated for the first time in 1807 by Humphrey Davy, who attended the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide.
In general 1912 Downs managed (Downs) That it is produced in commercial quantities from the electrolysis of a molten mixture of NaCl and calcium chloride.
Derived from Na named from the Arabic ( Soda A plant with a large proportion of Na carbonate is the old name of this salt.
It is also said that the origin of the naming is from Latin and German natrium Derived from natron The word indicates the presence of this salt on the shores of Lake Natron.
There is Na by 2.83 % From the Earth’s crust it is the widespread element in nature.
This element is not freely available in nature because it is rapidly oxidized in the air and reacts violently with water, that is, it must be stored in a non-oxidizing medium.
The most important sources of sodium: rock salt (NaCl), Waltrona (Trona) NaHCO 3.Na 2 CO 3 .2H 2 O Chili salt and sulfur.
First of all prepared Na
Sir Humphrey Davy was the first person to prepare the free element of Na without interacting with any other element in 1807, and because It is highly reactive and never produced in free form in nature, Humphrey applied electrolysis to dissolved sodium hydroxide. sodium, hydroxide-NaOH).
It was obtained by heating the old caustic soda with a mixture of carbon and iron at a temperature 1000 C o According to the following interaction:
It is prepared recently by electrolysis of molten sodium chloride mixture (40%) And calcium chloride (60%) Or sodium fluoride. for this purpose Cell analysis called Downs cell. The mixture is melted at grade 580 C o It is the temperature at which the cell operates. The following interactions occur:
It is produced in general commercial quantities 1855 by the return of sodium carbonate and the presence of carbon in the degree 1100 C o According to the Deville process :
Important information about sodium
There is some important Na information to know, including:
- The atomic number is 11.
- The atomic weight is 22.989768.
- Its density of 0.971 (g / cm3).
- It has a melting point of 370.96 Calvin.
- The boiling point is estimated at 1156.1 Kelvin.
- It is composed of silicate materials, such as feldspars and micas, is found in many salt rocks in different regions around the world, such as Chile and Peru, which have rocks that contain Na content in the sea is approximately 1.05% It has been identified as atomic and ionic in many star chains, including the sun.
Uses of sodium
It is used in many industries including:
- Manufacture of sodium cyanide and sodium peroxide.
- Manufacture of tetraethyl lead, which is added to the benzene.
- Manufacture of Na alkyl sulfates, which is the main ingredient in industrial detergents.
- Manufacture of Na hydride (NaH) and Na hydride (NaBH4).
- Manufacture of dyes, perfume synthesis, plus it is used in the manufacture of many organic compounds.
- The use of Na a coolant in fast-generation reactors containing mineral fluids, as it has the property of thermal transfer.
- Purification of some active minerals such as zirconium and potassium extracted from their compounds.
- Improving the structure of some mixtures.
- Smoothing surfaces.
- purification of molten metals.
- Lighting the streets of cities using sodium vapor lamps, and the colors of the light are related to the pressure of sodium vapor in the lamp.
- Heat transfer in some types of nuclear reactors, and is used herein its liquid state.
- Organic synthesis as a reference agent.
- Molten Na is used as a cooling medium in some types of fast neutron reactors. Its high boiling point allows the reactor to operate at normal pressures.
Chemical properties of Sodium
Interaction with oxygen Reaction between Na and Oxygen
It burns in an atmosphere of oxygen with a bright yellow flame forming sodium oxide and sodium peroxide.
The reaction between Na and water
It is strongly combined with water forming sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.
The reaction between Na and non-metals
It reacts by heating with non-metals and gives compounds with ionic properties.
Other reactions to sodium
Sodium can react with acids, and ethyl alcohol, especially ammonia with an intermediate and absolute heat of hydrogen gas and the problem of sodium chloride or sodium ethylate or amide
Effect of sodium in the human body
Although It is not an essential nutrient in most plant species, it is essential for metabolism in some plants. It is used in these plants in the manufacture of chlorophyll.
Due to the high salinity in the soil, both the maturation tension and the toxicity of sodium in plants, especially the grain crops, became a phenomenon throughout the world. The presence of high Na concentrations in the soil solution limits the water susceptibility of plants, due to the low soil water content, which leads to the wilt of the plant. In addition, increased sodium concentration in plant cell plasma can lead to enzymatic insufficiency in the form of necrosis and may lead to plant death.
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