Information on organic compounds
Organic compound refers to the large group of chemical compounds that essentially contain one or more atoms of carbon linked to covalent bonds with the atoms of various other elements, usually oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Carbon is the basis for classifying organic compounds, but some compounds may contain it and are not organic compounds such as cyanide, carbonate, and carbides.
Organic chemistry is the study of everything related to organic compounds, in terms of their structure, interactions, and properties. The characteristics of the organic compounds and the types of reactions that occur in these organic compounds, in addition to their classifications, and in this research, we will talk about everything related to organic compounds.
All organisms rely primarily on these compounds. Until the 19th century, it was thought that they could only be produced by the vital force that existed only in living organisms until the non-German chemist Friedrich Fuller had this thought in 1828 when he produced urea by chance. In his laboratory using inorganic substances unlike their natural formation in mammalian bodies.
The importance of organic compounds
The unique carbon atomic structure, how it binds to other elements so that it is able to form up to four covalent bonds with it and to form long stable chains have formed a huge number of organic compounds that are widely involved in many bands, including
- All organisms rely primarily on organic compounds in different food types.
- Biomaterials such as hormones, hemogleans, and chlorophyll.
- Clothing made of different materials such as wool, cotton, silk, and synthetic fibers.
- Different fuels such as coal, wood, oil and natural gas. Components of protective coatings such as paints and varnishes.
- Antibiotics, industrial drugs, and nucleic acids are made up of small units called nucleotides.
- Various industries such as natural and synthetic rubber, plastics, dyes, and pesticides.
Organic compounds in organisms
There are four main types of organic compounds that are present in all organisms, and there are a number of additional species that are produced or found in some of these organisms, and the four types constitute the following:
Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are the most common types of organic compounds in living organisms, which consists of elements of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen so that the ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms in their molecules 2: 1, and carbohydrates are structural units, sources of energy for organisms, in addition to using for other purposes, they can be classified according to the number of subunits in them. Examples include glucose, cellulose, chitin, fructose, sucrose or table sugar.
Proteins: Amino acid chains are the building blocks of proteins, called peptides. Proteins may consist of only one chain of a peptide. Other proteins, such as phosphorus, sulfur, copper, magnesium, and iron, are involved in the synthesis of certain proteins. Hemoglobin, enzymes, keratin, fibrin or fibrin, albumin.
Fat: Fat contains carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, and its hydrogen-oxygen ratio is higher than that of carbohydrates. Fats are subdivided into three basic groups, steroids, which consist mainly of four carbon rings linked together, and triglycerides, which include fats. , waxes, oils, and consists of three types of associated molecule glycerol fatty acids, and finally phospholipid that are similar to fat triple except that it has a phosphate group instead of one fatty acid chains, and form fat building blocks, sources of storage of energy It also helps cells to communicate with each other by giving signals, and examples of fat cholesterol, olive oil, and cortisol and the hormone estrogen, paraffin, and margarine.
Nucleic acids: Nucleic acids are a type of biological polymer, consisting of chains of nucleotide monomers consisting of a nitrogen base, a phosphate group, and a sugar molecule. Nucleic acids from a genetic information code for living cells. Examples of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA.
In their early study of organic compounds, chemists observed that there are specific groups of atoms, and their bonds form certain types of reactions to their constituent molecules in what is known as functional groups, which are a fundamental regulatory feature of organic chemistry. The properties of molecules are further complicated when they are composed of more than one type of functional group. Examples of key functional groups are:
- Alkanes: Alkanes are defined as compounds consisting entirely of carbon atoms, and hydrogen, which binds to strong, non-polar covalent bonds called sigma bonds. Examples of alkanes are methane, ethane, propane, and butane.
- Alkenes: Alkenes are organic compounds that have a double bond between carbon atoms, one of which is a sigma bond, and the other is a pi bond. This functional group is widespread in nature and importance in chemistry, such as ethylene and vitamin A, which is essential for vision.
- Alkanes: Alkanes are defined as molecules that have a triple bond between carbon atoms, one sigma bond, and two Bay bonds, such as acetylene. Alcohols and phenols: Alcohols are formed when the hydroxyl group is linked to the alkane group. Examples are ethanol, while phenols are formed when the hydroxyl group is bound to the aryl ring (aromatic hydrocarbon).
- Halides are organic compounds that contain halogens such as fluorine, chlorine, and bromine. Examples include vinyl chloride.
- Aromatic hydrocarbons: An example is a benzaldehyde.
- Organic compounds can be found as independent molecules.
- There are both gaseous and liquid.
- It is melted at low temperatures, and its solutions are the high-temperature boiling point.
- Insoluble in water.
- Accept solubility in organic solvents such as alcohol and ethers.
- Slow reaction with organic matter.
- You need a cofactor to react.
- Carbon compounds are particularly widespread because of their atoms’ ability to bind to so-called covalent bonds with each other.
- It is a high-temperature compound.
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