Hydrocarbons are organic chemical compounds consisting of only carbon and hydrogen elements. Carbon atoms are bound together to form the structure of the compound. Hydrocarbons are also found in trees and plants in the form of dyes called carotenes found in carrots and green leaves.
Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds, and although these compositions are composed of only two types of atoms, there are a variety of groups because of their formation of different lengths of chains, branch chains, rings of carbon atoms, or a mixture of these structures, and they are found in many plants, animals, and fossil fuels, and some can be prepared in the laboratory.
Types of hydrocarbons
In the 19th century, chemists divided hydrocarbons into two main types depending on their source and characteristics:
Aliphatic hydrocarbons are derived from the chemical decomposition of fats or oils and are divided into three main groups depending on the type of bonds they contain:
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Derived from the chemical decomposition of the extracts of some species of aromatic plants, they are divided into two types:
- Arenes aromatic hydrocarbons: They have a benzene ring as the main building unit.
- Nonbenzenoid aromatic hydrocarbons: They lack a benzene ring as a building unit.
The terminology for hydrocarbons has continued to be used to date, but the compounds described by these names are currently classified according to their composition rather than their origins as in the preceding classification. Alkanes are called saturated hydrocarbons. Aromatic compounds, alkenes, and alkenes are called unsaturated hydrocarbons.
It is also common in hydrocarbons that a single molecule may combine the residues of two or more hydrocarbon families. For example, a molecule containing a triple bond between carbon atoms, a benzene ring shows some of the characteristics of alkenes and other properties related to aromatic hydrocarbons.
Aliphatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen-bonded together in straight, branched or non-aromatic chains. Although hydrogen atoms are the most common atoms to bind to the carbon chain, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine They are also atoms that may exist in this kind of compound.
CH 4 is the simplest type of aliphatic hydrocarbons and is released as a gas from decaying bodies and from the intestines of many animals.  Examples include acetylene, propane, propane, ethylene, and polyethylene, most notably flammable. So they are often used as fuel.
Alkanes have only a single bond, and all molecular formulas follow the following general formula: C n H 2n + 2,  This formula means that the number of hydrogen atoms in them is twice the number of carbon atoms in addition to the number 2.
Alkanes are used as clean fuels that burn to produce water and carbon dioxide. Methane, ethane, propane, and butane are the first four alkanes in the chain, which are gases, while the other alkanes that follow are in the liquid state.
Cycloalkanes are a type of alkane comprising a carbon ring rather than a benzene ring. Melting is high compared to them.
Alkenes have only one bilateral bond between carbon atoms, and all molecular formulas follow the following general formula: C n H 2n.
It contains one triple bond between carbon atoms, and all molecular formulas follow the following general formula: C n H 2n- 2, which is a highly chemical reaction, which includes the addition of hydrogen or halogens, for example, propane. The physical properties of alkenes and alkenes are generally similar to those of alkanes, or cycloalkanes, equal to the numbers of carbon atoms, and alkenes typically have higher boiling points than alkanes or alkenes.
Aromatic hydrocarbons can be defined as stable, unsaturated cyclic compounds, composed mainly of carbon atoms and hydrogen, and benzene (C 6 H 6 ) is the most famous of these compounds and is difficult to separate in chemical reactions, unlike aliphatic hydrocarbons, And usually includes one or two rings of gasoline.
The economic importance of hydrocarbons
The burning of hydrocarbons in the presence of sufficient oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and heat is the main reason for their use as fuel in the world; hydrocarbons are the main source of energy around the world; they provide fuel that can be converted into energy through refining, Which offers a wide range of derivatives that play an essential role in the global economy; their importance in plastics, solvents, and lubricants.
Hydrocarbons depending on the number of hydrogen atoms
Hydrocarbons follow several molecular formulas that combine carbon and hydrogen atoms. These bonds are called different names:
Alkanes C n H 2n + 2, this bond refers to the saturation of carbon atoms with hydrogen, and therefore are among the saturated hydrocarbons, that is, all their bonds are mono, since the first compound contains one atom of carbon, and one atom increases in the next compound, Examples of alkanes are in order: methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, and octane.
Alkenes C n H 2n, this link indicates the lack of two oxygen atoms, that is, a carbon atom of the chain does not saturate their orbits electrons, and thus form a binary bond between them, that is, the compound carrying this formula contains a double bond, since each compound exceeds the one before it One carbon seed, examples of alkenes in order: ethene, propane, biotin, pentane, hexane, heptane, and octane.
Alkynes or acetylenes C n H2 n-2, this formula refers to the lack of four hydrogen atoms, and thus two carbon atoms make a triple bond between them, such as the order of carbon atoms: ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane. Thus, unsaturated hydrocarbons can be converted to saturated by addition reactions to carbon atoms, or other elements of halogens.
The importance of hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons are important sources of energy on which humans depend, the simplest of which is petrol, a derivative of petroleum and used as a fuel for many means of transport. Its molecular formula is C 6 H 6, in addition to methane, the gas used for cooking and heating, which is from alkenes and its molecular formula. The other petroleum derivatives are hydrocarbons, natural gas alone in the ground, and coal, which is one of the most important causes of the industrial revolution, and its energy has reached mankind into space where he used fuel for spacecraft as well. Lod In, candles and others.
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