Atoms are the basic units of matter and a basic element. The term “atom” comes from the Greek word meaning “indivisible” because it was previously thought that the atom was the smallest thing in the universe and could not be divided. We now know that atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons, which are made up of tiny particles, such as quarks.
Atoms were formed 13.7 billion years ago after the Big Bang. As the new, denser, warmer universe cooled, the conditions became suitable for the formation of quarks and electrons. Quarks combine to form protons and neutrons, and these particles are mixed into the nucleus. According to CERN, this happened during the first few minutes of the universe’s existence.
It took 380,000 years for the universe to cool enough to allow nuclear electrons to form the first atom to capture them. According to Jefferson Labs, the first atoms were mainly hydrogen and helium, the most abundant elements in the universe. Eventually, due to gravity, clouds of gas merged and became stars, and heavy atoms were formed (and still are) inside the stars and sent into the universe when the stars (supernovae) exploded.
Protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and are found in the nucleus in the center of the atom. Electrons are very lightweight and are found in clouds that orbit the center. According to the Las Alamos National Laboratory, the center of an electron cloud is 10,000 times the radius of the nucleus.
Protons and neutrons are nearly identical. However, the proton is about 1,835 times larger than the electron. Atoms always have the same number of protons and electrons, and in general, the number of protons and neutrons is the same. Adding a proton to an atom creates a new element while adding a neutron creates an isotope or a heavier version of that atom.
The cover was discovered in 1911 by New Zealand physicist Ernest Rutherford. In 1920, Rutherford proposed the name proton for positively charged particles of an atom. He also posted that there was a neutral particle inside the nucleus, as confirmed by the British physicist and Rutherford student James Chadwick in 1932.
According to chemistry liberal texts, almost all of the atom’s money resides at its center. The protons and neutrons that make up the center are almost the same mass (protons are slightly smaller) and have the same angular velocity or rotation.
One of the four basic forces of basic nature is associated with great power. According to the laws of electricity, this force between protons and neutrons controls the destructive electrical force that removes protons. Some nuclear nuclei are unstable because the bond strength for different atoms varies depending on the size of the nucleus. These atoms will then dissolve into other elements, such as carbon 14 and nitrogen 14.