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Elements of Periodic Table in Chemistry

What are the elements

elements are the component could be a substance that is made completely from one style of the particle. for instance, the part gas is framed from particles containing one nucleon and a solitary electron.

Periodic Table of the Elements

Dmitri Mendeleev, the inventor, and chemist of Russia is the founder of the Periodic Table according to the Royal Society of Chemistry. , From top to bottom, in general, this arrangement also corresponds to the increase in the atomic mass of the elements, and the rows in the periodic table are called cycles, and the cycle number of an element indicates the highest level of energy that electrons can occupy (in the non-stimulating state), B. The so-called periodic table columns groups, carry valence electrons for the elements of each distribution group similar, and therefore it has the characteristics of a chemical similar.

The periodic table provides a lot of important information, such as Atomic number, which refers to the number of protons of the element, and determines its chemical behavior, for example, carbon atoms of the element contains six protons, while the hydrogen atoms have only one proton, and the table also contains the symbols of elements that are short for representation, For example, the symbol (O) is used to represent the oxygen element, and the symbol (C) to represent the carbon. In addition, the periodic table contains the atomic weight of the elements; this weight measures the average mass of the element in the atomic mass unit (AMU).

Elements of the Periodic Table Alkali metals

Alkali metals form elements of the first group except for hydrogen, which may be considered alkaline under a specific and rare circumstance. All alkali metals have only one valence electron, which can easily be lost to form a single positive charge ion. It is also the most active, and this group includes elements: lithium, potassium, sodium, and rubidium, in addition to cesium and francium.

Alkaline earth metals

Alkaline Earth Metals are elements of the second group in the periodic table. They have two valence electrons that tend to lose them to form ions with two positive charges. They are less active than alkali metals, yet they are somewhat active and react with halogens. This group includes beryllium, which tends to form covalent bonds in its compounds, calcium, magnesium, barium, strontium, and radium, which is not always considered due to its radioactivity.

Transitional elements

Transition Metals are the largest group in the periodic table, located in the middle, and in the two lines below them. They have two valence electrons at different levels, luminosity, high thermal and electrical conductivity, high melting point, and different oxidation numbers. This group includes the following elements:

  • Scandium.
  • Titanium.
  • Vanadium.
  • Chromium.
  • Manganese.
  • Iron. Cobalt.
  • Nickel.
  • Copper.
  • Zinc.
  • Yttrium.
  • Zirconium.
  • Niobium.
  • Molybdenum.
  • Technium.
  • Ruthenium.
  • Rhodium.
  • PALLADIUM on Godudu PALLADIUM electric – band tourism / geographic tourism / geographic Silver.
  • Cadmium. Lanthanum: is a rare terrestrial lanthanide.
  • Hafnium.
  • Tantalum.
  • Tungsten.
  • Rhenium.
  • Osmium.
  • Iridium.
  • Platinum.
  • gold.
  • Mercury.
  • Actinium: It is a ground actinide. Rutherfordium.
  • Denim.
  • Cyborgium.
  • Barium.
  • Hassium.
  • Methane.
  • Darmatistium.
  • Runtgenium.
  • Copernicium: Formerly known as Anon Bayum, possibly a transitional element.

Ground elements

Earth Metal, the so-called boron group, is the 13th group in the periodic table. Its elements have 3 valence electrons and are an intermediate between metals and non-metals. This group includes aluminum, the most famous of which are boron and indium. , Gallium, thallium, and neonium, formerly named Anon Trium, an uncertain element.

Nitrogen group

The elements in the fifteenth set of the periodic table form the nitrogen group. The elements of the nitrogen group have 5 valence electrons, and have many properties, and are an intermediate between metals and non-metals, and this group includes: nitrogen, which is the most famous element, in addition to arsenic, phosphorus , and antimony (antimony), bismuth, and moscovium, which was formerly called (Anon Pentium), It is an uncertain element.

Carbon group

The fourteenth set of the periodic table is called the Carbon Group, a group with four valence electrons, which is an intermediate between metals and non-metals. It includes the following elements: the most famous carbon, in addition to silicon, tin, lead, and germanium, The formerly named pyrophosphate (Anon Cuadium) is an uncertain element.

Oxygen group

The Oxygen Group includes elements in the 16th set of the periodic table, also called the Chalcogens, whose elements have six valence electrons and tend to gain two additional electrons to complete the outer shell with eight electrons, forming ions with Double negative charge. This group includes oxygen, selenium, sulfur, polonium, levorium, and tellurium. The neon.


Halogens form the elements of the seventeenth group in the periodic table, which are active non-metallic elements that are not freely found in nature due to their large chemical activity. Halogens show significant similarities in their general chemical behavior and the properties of their compounds with other elements, this group: fluorine, bromine, iodine, chlorine, statins, and Altinesan, and is fluorine halogen most abundant in the earth ‘s crust, while elemental chlorine is halogen months including, where often used as a factor in water purification, and in many operations For chemical, such as the production of sodium chloride, which is one of the most well-known vehicles.

Noble gases

Noble gases include elements of group XVIII in the periodic table and are non-flammable, odorless, colorless and tasteless gases. This group was referred to in the old as inert or rare; After the discovery of these elements, it was believed that they are rare and do not interact with other atoms to form chemical compounds. The abundance of these noble gases decreases as their atomic numbers increase, and helium is the most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen. In addition to helium, this group includes elements of neon, argon, radon, xenon, krypton, and oceans.

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