What is chemistry
Chemistry is defined as the science of studying matter (property and compounds), its properties, composition, structure, transformation, and energy released during these chemical processes and reactions. Each substance, whether natural or artificial, consists of one or more atoms that have been identified as elements. Although these atoms are composed of elementary particles, they form the basis of chemical substances. The chemical composition and atomic rearrangement of one or more substances to produce different materials as new products.
it can be defined as the science of matter, which looks at the structure, structure, properties, behavior, and interaction of matter in addition to the interactions it creates. It studies the properties of compounds, elements, and laws that control their interactions when combined, which is called synthesis and is separated from each other by analysis.
Main branches of chemistry
there are different main branches including:
- Analytical chemistry
The physical and chemical properties of materials are determined and measured based on qualitative and quantitative control.
- Organic Chemistry
This science is related to the study of compounds that contain carbon elements, among them, carbon elements have many unique characteristics, which can form complex chemical bonds and huge molecules.
- Physical chemistry
It is a combination of chemistry and physical science, and how interactive material with energy, and the science of thermodynamics and quantum mechanics is divided into two branches. It is one of the traditional subdisciplines, with the application of the concepts and theories of physics in the analysis of chemical properties and the reactivity of substances. An interface between physics and chemistry, which are physically and chemically different.
- Inorganic Chemistry
This science is dedicated to studying carbon-free substances such as metals and gases. It is related to the properties and behavior of non-essential compounds, including metals, minerals, and organometallic compounds. Although organic chemistry is referred to as the study of carbon compounds, and organic chemistry is the study of another class of compounds other than organic compounds, there is overlap between the two fields (such as (Directly connected to carbon).
This will examine the chemical processes that take place in the body.
there are of different other branches including:
- Polymer chemistry
In which examines plastics and interlocking chain atoms that are shaped by snaring little particles together. study huge, complex atoms that are comprised of extremely little (now and again rehashing) units. They study how little structure squares (monomers) join and consolidate the monomers/polymer sub-atomic structures, figure monomer/polymer mixes, and utilize synthetic and handling strategies, They make it conceivable to make a helpful substance with explicit highlights. To a huge degree, it influences the nature of the last item. The polymer is novel in the network as the connection between their structure and properties stretches out from the sub-atomic scale to the plainly visible scale.
- Nuclear chemistry
studying nuclear interaction. it is concerned with the properties and changes of atomic nuclei, compared to conventional chemistry, which involves properties and changes related to the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. The topic includes, for example, the study of radioactivity and nuclear reactions.
- Chemical thermodynamics
Chemical thermodynamics dealing with energy changes that occur during a chemical reaction and how temperature and pressure differences affect the reaction.
- Quantum chemistry
It analyzes the distribution of electrons within molecules and interprets the chemical behavior of these molecules based on electron structure.it applies quantum mechanics to theoretical studies of chemical systems. Its purpose is, in principle, to solve the Schrödinger equation for the system under investigation; However, its complexity for all but the simplest of atoms or molecules requires simplifying assumptions and estimates, leading to a trade-off between accuracy and computational cost.
- Surface chemistry
examines testing the surface properties of a chemical.
- Applied Chemistry
which is concerned with the practical application of matter and chemical processes. Unlike pure chemistry, its principles and theories to answer a specific question or solve a real-world problem are applied chemistry, which aims to enhance knowledge within the field. We say your goal is to find a cure for any disease – Alzheimer’s. You work hard in the lab to develop a drug that prevents dementia. This would be an example of applied chemistry because you used this to solve a particular, real-world problem.
- Qualitative analysis
Detects the type of compounds and the elements that make up the material.
- Quantitative analysis
Based on estimating the quantities of different chemicals that make up the materials. Quantitative analysis is a mathematical and statistical method that studies behavior and predicts the results that investors and administrators use in their decision-making processes. Through the use of financial research and analysis, this form of analysis seeks to evaluate investment opportunities or estimate economic value change.
- Agricultural chemistry
It is concerned with the development of pesticides and fertilizers.it is the study of agriculture. In agriculture, factors such as agricultural production, use of agricultural products, and environmental issues are studied and methods for improving them are developed. In agriculture, the relationship between plant animals and the environment is called upon to improve the agricultural sector.
- Chemical Kinetics
Chemical kinetics is concerned with studying the steps in a chemical reaction. Chemical kinetics is the study of chemical processes and reaction rates. This includes analyzing the conditions that affect the speed of a chemical reaction, understanding the reaction mechanisms and transition states, and forming mathematical models to predict and describe the chemical reaction. The rate of chemical reaction usually contains a 1 s-1 unit.
studies the chemical effects of radiation on materials.
Atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons are isotopic. To identify an isotope we use the notation AZE, where E is the atomic symbol of the element, Z is the atomic number of the element, and A is the atomic mass number of the element. Although different isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties, their atomic properties are different. The most important difference between isotopes is their stability. The atomic configuration of a stable isotope remains constant over time. Volatile isotopes, however, spontaneously disintegrate, emitting radioactive particles as they are converted to more stable forms.
The importance of chemistry lies in several fields of life, as follows:
It explains how foods change while cooking, preserving, and rotting. The chemicals in our diet are often put into four categories: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fats and everything else. This final set does not have specific properties but includes vitamins, minerals, medicines and hundreds of trace chemicals that we each consume every day.
It explains how vitamins, nutritional supplements, drugs in the body, and other matters of medicine work.
- Environmental Issues
It explains the presence of pollutants, which are not polluting the environment.
It explains how detergents work and make it easier to identify the best types of detergent, and everything related to it.
Chemistry is considered one of the natural sciences that have been used and researched by man since ancient times. This science in the old has played a huge role in many fields that touched the life of man directly and vitally. Every substance, whether natural or synthetic, is composed of one or more atoms that are recognized as elements. They form the basis of nuclear chemicals, though they contain elementary particles. Chemical synthesis, and maintenance of atoms of one or more substances to produce different materials, such as new products.
Chemistry begins with the study of elementary bodies, molecules, atoms, crystals, chemicals, and other forms of matter clusters in their liquid, solid, or gaseous state, whether isolated or combined with each other. This behavior is studied in laboratories using various forms of laboratory equipment and instruments.
Food science deals with the three biological components of food – carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Carbohydrates are sugars and starches, the chemical fuel needed for our cells to function. Fats are fats and oils and are essential parts of the cell membrane and lubrication and cushioning of organs within the body. Because fats contain 2.25 times the energy per gram of carbohydrates or protein, many people try to limit their intake to avoid being overweight. Proteins are complex molecules consisting of 100 to 500 amino acids, which are bound together and converted into three-dimensional shapes required for the structure and function of each cell. Our bodies can synthesize some amino acids. However, eight of them, essential amino acids, must be taken as part of our diet. Food scientists are also interested in the inorganic ingredients of foods such as water, minerals, vitamins, and enzymes.
The emergence and development of chemistry are due to the need for human beings to discover the world with its different elements, as well as the nature of chemistry associated with all things of life. Therefore, man has worked since ancient times to adapt the material in such a way as to satisfy its diverse and renewable needs throughout history. Through chemistry, material profit was sought by transforming materials, producing new goods, and trying to achieve eternal health with many experiments to prepare the elixir of life.
Different topics of chemistry are:
- Basics definitions of chemistry
- Clinical chemistry
- Organic chemistry
- Complete inorganic chemistry
- Synergy in supramolecular chemistry
- Chemistry precision and design
- physical chemistry
- Chemical communication
- Applied chemistry
- Secondary chemistry
- living science chemistry
- Pearson chemistry
- ICSE chemistry
- Advanced chemistry
- Fundamental of analytical chemistry
- Numeracy skills in chemistry
- Modern chemistry
- Visualizing chemistry
- Medical chemistry
Famous chemists and their contributions
Name of chemists Famous for
Marie curie Discovery of radium and polonium
John Dalton Identification and presenting the atomic theory
George Washington Promoting alternative crops of cotton
Louis Pasteur The process of pasteurization and creation of vaccines
Alfred Noble Inventing the dynamic
Rosalind Franklin Discovery of DNA structure in genetics
Antoine Lavoisier Being the” Father of Modern Chemistry”
Robert Boyle Being the first “Modern Chemist”
Linus Pauling His work in molecular biology and quantum chemistry
Dimitri Mendeleev Creating the tale of element used in chemistry and physics
Joseph Priestly Inventing soda water
Mario Molina Discovered the ozone hole in the antarctic
Humphry Davy The discovered of earth-based alkaline metals and alkali
Otto Hahn Being the “Father of nuclear chemistry “
Svante Arrhenius Theory of the greenhouse effect and founder on the science of physical chemistry
Ahmad Zewail Being the “Father of Femtochemistry”
Fredric sanger Determination of base sequences in nucleic acids
Stanislao Cannizzaro The Cannizzaro reaction
Thomas Graham His work on the diffusion of gases and the application of dialysis